The Human Visual System

The visual system includes both the eyes and the brain. Light enters your eye where it hits the retina, that triggers light receptors to send electrical signals through your optic nerve, which travel to the back of your brain where the first stages of visual perception takes place.

The brain then sends increasingly filtered signals forwards through the brain until you can "see" them and take action.

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The retinal ganglion cells from the nasal half of each retina send their axons to the contralateral half-brain whereas the ganglion cells from the temporal hemiretinae project ipsilaterally. As a result of this arrangement the left brain sees the right visual hemifield and the right brain the left visual hemifield; the neural signals produced by any one object in each eye end up in the same location in the brain.

LGN: Forms the gateway to the visual cortex.

Superior Colliculus: Plays a central role in eye movement

Retinal ganglion cells are the output cells of the retina. There's a million of them per eye.

(can stem cells be used here to heal these cells?)

Vieth- Muller/Horopter: A circle that runs through the nodal point of each eye and touches the point at which the two eyes fixate.

Retina cells diagram

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