Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used), which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders.
An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor (MD) or osteopathic doctor (DO) who specializes in eye and vision care. All ophthalmologists must complete four years of an MD or DO program followed by four years of an ophthalmology residency.
An ophthalmologist provides both medical and surgical care of the eye and visual system.
Many ophthalmologists complete an extra one or two years of education after residency termed a fellowship. Fellowship trained ophthalmologists sub-specialize in areas such as retinal treatment and surgery, oculoplatics, ocular oncology, neuro-ophthalmology, glaucoma, pediatrics, and strabismus.